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Headings (General Formatting)
Example: Click here for a PDF example of the various ways to style headings.

All theses/dissertations should have multiple orders (levels) of headings. Headings help the reader navigate through the manuscript. As the orders progress, the content described within the section typically becomes more specific. Most style guides suggest a maximum of six orders.

Each order should be styled differently - be it centered or left-aligned, boldface, italic, underlined, or even indented. Different capitalization schemes can also be used to differentiate between orders. This is the reason you must be consistent in the style and position of each order of heading.

It is also required that the text used in each order of heading is listed (and matches word-for-word) in the Table of Contents.

1st-Order Headings (Chapter Headings)

All 1st-order headings (also called chapter headings or major headings) must begin on a new page and be positioned 2" from the top edge of the page (1" below the 1" top margin).

Use the Enter key to space down 1" from the top margin. (Depending on the font and format, this will be between 3-4 single-spaced lines, or 2 double-spaced lines.)

2nd- to 6th-Order Headings (Sub-Headings)

All other headings should follow continuously and should not begin on a new page (unless the heading is orphaned at the bottom of the previous page - then you would push it to the top of the following page - 1" below the top edge of the page). The text will automatically wrap to the correct position when typing.